CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2023-24 PDF (New)

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CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2023-24 PDF Highlights

Board NameCentral Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)
Level of the ExamNational Level Exam
Post CategoryCBSE Biology Syllabus
Name of the ClassClass 12
Academic Year2023-24
Syllabus StatusDownload Here

Download CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2023-24 PDF 

  • Time: 03 Hours   
  • Max. Marks: 70
VIIGenetics and Evolution20
VIIIBiology and Human Welfare12
IXBiotechnology and its Applications12
XEcology and Environment10

Download CBSE 12th Revised Syllabus 2023-24 PDF

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Unit-VI Reproduction Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies, and examples; out breeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post-fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis

-spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilization, embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy;

elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex-linked inheritance – hemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans – thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene

expression and regulation – lac operon; Genome, Human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter-7: Evolution

Origin of life; biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.

Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Unit-IX Biotechnology and its Applications Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes

Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Applications

Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

Unit-X Ecology and Environment Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations

Population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. (Topics excluded: Organism and its Environment, Major Aboitic Factors, Responses to Abioitic Factors, Adaptations)

Chapter-14: Ecosystem

Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy (Topics excluded: Ecological Succession and Nutrient Cycles)

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.


Time allowed: 3 Hours                                                                                     Max. Marks: 30

Evaluation SchemeMarks
One Major Experiment55
One Minor Experiment 2 & 34
Slide Preparation1& 45
Practical Record + Viva Voce(Credit to the students’ work over theacademic session may be


Investigatory Project and its Project Record + Viva Voce5


A.     List of Experiments

  1. Prepare a temporary mount to observe pollen
  2. Study the plant population density by quadrat
  3. Study the plant population frequency by quadrat
  4. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study
  5. Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya,

B.      Study and observer the following (Spotting)

  1. Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).
  2. Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide or scanning electron
  3. Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper/mice).
  4. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
  5. S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).
  6. Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/sizes of any
  7. Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak and colour
  8. Controlled pollination – emasculation, tagging
  9. Common disease causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, any fungus causing ringworm through permanent slides, models or virtual images or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they
  10. Models specimen showing symbolic association in root modules of leguminous plants, Cuscuta on host, lichens.
  11. Flashcards models showing examples of homologous and analogous

Practical Examination for Visually Impaired Students of Classes XI and XII

Evaluation Scheme

Time: 02 Hours 

Max. Marks: 30

Identification/Familiarity with the apparatus5
Written test (Based on given / prescribed practicals)10
Practical Records5


General Guidelines

  • The practical examination will be of two hour A separate list of ten experiments is included here.
  • The written examination in practicals for these students will be conducted at the time of practical examination of all other
  • The written test will be of 30 minutes
  • The question paper given to the students should be legibly typed. It should contain a total of 15 practical skill based very short answer type questions. A student would be required to answer any 10 questions.
  • A writer may be allowed to such students as per CBSE examination
  • All questions included in the question paper should be related to the listed practicals. Every question should require about two minutes to be answered.
  • These students are also required to maintain a practical file. A student is expected to record at least five of the listed experiments as per the specific instructions for each These practicals should be duly checked and signed by the internal examiner.
  • The format of writing any experiment in the practical file should include aim, apparatus required, simple theory, procedure, related practical skills, precautions
  • Questions may be generated jointly by the external/internal examiners and used for
  • The viva questions may include questions based on basic theory / principle / concept, apparatus / materials / chemicals required, procedure, precautions, sources of error

Class XII

  1. Items for Identification/ familiarity with the apparatus for assessment in practicals (All experiments) Beaker, flask, petriplates, soil from different sites – sandy, clayey, loamy, small potted plants, aluminium foil, paint brush, test tubes, starch solution, iodine, ice cubes, Bunsen burner/spirit lamp/water bath, large flowers, Maize inflorescence, model of developmental stages highlighting morula and blastula of frog, beads/seeds of different shapes/size/texture Ascaris, Cactus/Opuntia(model).

B.        List of Practicals

  1. Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects).
  2. Identification of S of morula or blastula of frog (Model).
  3. Study of Mendelian inheritance pattern using beads/seeds of different sizes/texture.
  4. Preparation of pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, colour
  5. Study of    emasculation,    tagging    and    bagging    by    trying    out             an   exercise             on controlled
  6. Identify common disease causing organisms like Ascaris (model)and learn some commonsymptoms of the disease that they
  7. Comment upon the morphological adaptations of plants found in xerophytic

Note: The above practicals may be carried out in an experiential manner rather than recording observations.

Prescribed Books:

  1. Biology, Class-XII, Published by NCERT
  2. Other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT (consider multimedia also)
  3. Biology Supplementary Material (Revised). Available on CBSE

Question Paper Design (Theory) 2022-23 Class XII

Biology (044)



Demonstrate Knowledge and Understanding

Application of Knowledge / Concepts30%

Analyze, Evaluate and Create





  • Typology of questions: VSA including MCQs, Assertion – Reasoning type questions; SA; LA- I; LA-II; Source-based/ Case-based/ Passage-based/ Integrated assessment
  • An internal choice of approximately 33% would be

Suggestive verbs for various competencies

  • Demonstrate, Knowledge and Understanding

State, name, list, identify, define, suggest, describe, outline, summarize, etc.

 Application of Knowledge/Concepts

Calculate, illustrate, show, adapt, explain, distinguish, etc.

Analyze, Evaluate, and Create

Interpret, analyze, compare, contrast, examine, evaluate, discuss, construct, etc.

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