APPSC Junior Lecturer Syllabus 2019 PDF: Download Andhra Pradesh Public Service Commission JL Syllabus and Exam Pattern From this page. APPSC has released APPSC Junior Lecturer Notification 2019 on its Official website psc.ap.gov.in. Interested and eligible candidates can apply Online. This article is about APPSC JL Syllabus and Exam Pattern. The Candidates who have applied for APPSC Junior Lecturer Jobs and started preparation for the Written examination can download the APPSC Junior Lecturer Syllabus from this page for free download.
- 1 APPSC Junior Lecturer Syllabus & APPSC JL Exam Pattern
- 2 APPSC Junior lecturer Syllabus
- 2.1 PAPER-2 – (CONCERNED SUBJECT)
- 2.2 III.English Language Teaching
- 2.3 URDU
- 2.4 1. ORIGIN & DEVELOPMENT OF URDU LANGUAGE
- 2.5 2. DECCANIYAT :
- 2.6 3.DEVELOPMENT OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF LITERATURE :
- 2.7 b)PROSE :
- 2.8 5. SANSKRIT
- 2.9 MATHEMATICS
- 2.10 8. PHYSICS
- 2.11 9. CHEMISTRY
- 2.12 Physical Chemistry
- 2.13 2. Statistical Thermodynamics
- 2.14 3. Electrochemistry
- 2.15 4. QUANTUM CHEMISTRY
- 2.16 5. Chemical Kinetics
- 2.17 6. Photochemistry
- 2.18 7. Solid state chemistry
- 2.19 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
- 2.20 10. BOTANY
- 2.21 CYTOLOGY, GENETICS AND CYTOGENETICS
- 2.22 BIOLOGY AND DIVERSITY OF LOWEER PLANTS : CRYPTOGAMS
- 2.23 TAXONOMY AND DIVERSITY OF SEED PLANTS
- 2.24 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND METABOLISM
- 2.25 PLANT DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION
- 2.26 Phyllotaxy and leaf differentiation
- 2.27 PLANT ECOLOGY
- 2.28 PLANT RESOURCE UTILIZATION AND CONSERVATION
- 2.29 BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING OF PLANTS AND MICROBES
- 2.30 11.ZOOLOGY
- 2.31 Non-Chordata :
- 2.32 CHORDATA :
- 2.33 CELL BIOLOGY :
- 2.34 GENETICS :
- 2.35 SYSTEM AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY :
- 2.36 EVOLUTION :
- 2.37 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY :
- 2.38 HISTOLOGY :
- 2.39 ECOLOGY :
- 2.40 IMMUNOLOGY :
- 2.41 12. COMMERCE
- 2.42 13. ECONOMICS
- 2.43 2. Macroeconomic Analysis
- 2.44 3. Development and Growth
- 2.45 4. Money and Banking
- 2.46 5. Public Finance
- 2.47 6.International Trade and Finance
- 2.48 7. Indian Economy :
- 2.49 8.QUANTITATIVE METHODS :
- 2.50 b. Econometric Methods :
- 2.51 c.Time Series Models
- 2.52 d. Mathematical Methods
- 2.53 14.CIVICS
- 2.54 I. (B) Research Methodology
- 2.55 II. Public Administration
- 2.56 III.Political Science
- 2.57 15.HISTORY
- 2.58 Modern India (1757-1947) :
- 2.59 Modern World :
APPSC Junior Lecturer Syllabus & APPSC JL Exam Pattern
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SCHEME AND SYLLABUS FOR RECRUITMENT TO THE POST OF JUNIOR LECTURERS IN GOVT. JR. COLLEGES
|Papers||No.of Questions||Duration (Minutes)||Maximum Marks|
|PART-A: Written ‘Examination (Objective Type)|
|Paper-1: General Studies & Mental Ability|
|Paper-2: Concerned Subject (One only)|
|PART-B: Interview (Oral Test)||50|
|NEGATIVE MARKS: As per G.O. Ms. No.235 Finance (HR-I, Plg & Policy) Dept.,|
Dt.06/12/2016, for each wrong answer will be penalized with 1/3rd of the marks prescribed for the question.
APPSC Junior lecturer Syllabus
PAPER-1: GENERAL STUDIES AND MENTAL ABILITY
- Events of national and international
- Current affairs- international, national and
- General Science and it applications to the day to day life Contemporary developments in Science & Technology and information Technology.
- Social- economic and political history of modern India with emphasis on Andhra
- Indian polity and governance: constitutional issues, public policy, reforms and e-governance initiatives with specific reference to Andhra
- Economic development in India since independence with emphasis on Andhra
- Physical geography of Indian sub-continent and Andhra
- Disaster management: vulnerability profile, prevention and mitigation strategies, Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in the assessment of Disaster.
- Sustainable Development and Environmental Protection
- Logical reasoning, analytical ability and data
- Data Analysis:
- Tabulation of data
- Visual representation of data
- Basic data analysis (Summary Statistics such as mean, median, mode, variance and coefficient of variation) and Interpretation
- Bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh and its Administrative, Economic, Social, Cultural, Political, and Legal implications/problems.
PAPER-2 – (CONCERNED SUBJECT)
- Movements and Concepts
Renaissance, Metaphysical poetry, Neo-classicism, Romanticism, Rise of the novel, Modernism, Postmodernism, Colonialism, Postcolonialsim, Diaspora, Psychoanalytical criticism, Myth and archetype, Feminism, Structuralism, Poststructuralism, Deconstruction.
II. Writers and Texts
- William Shakespeare Hamlet, Tempest
- John Milton Paradise Lost-Book 1 and 9
- William Wordsworth “Immortality Ode”, Tintern Abbey
- John Keats “Ode to a Nightingale”, “To Autumn”
- Robert Browning “My Last Duchess”, “The Last Ride Together”
- Charles Dickens David Copperfield
- TS Eliot “The Waste Land”, Murder in the Cathedral
- GB Shaw Saint Joan
- Virginia Woolf “A Room of One’s Own”
- Samuel Beckett Waiting for Godot
- William Golding Lord of the Flies
- Robert Frost “Home Burial”, “The Road Not Taken”
- Eugene O’Neill The Hairy Ape
- Toni Morrison Beloved
- Mulk Raj Anand Untouchable
- AK Ramanujan “Love Poem for a Wife”, “Small-Scale Reflections on a Great House”
- Girish Karnad Hayavadana
- Salman Rushdie Midnight’s Children
- Chinua Achebe Things Fall Apart
- Margaret Atwood Edible Woman
- AD Hope “Australia”, “Crossing the Frontier”
- Bessie Head A Question of Power
III.English Language Teaching
- ELT in India: (History and status of English in India; English as Second Language, English as Foreign Language, and Ensglish as Global Language).
- Methods and Approaches: (Grammar Translation method, Direct method, Audio- Lingual method; Structural approach, Communicative language teaching)
- Teaching of Language Skills: (Teaching of Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing Skills; Teaching of Grammar and Functional English; Teaching of Vocabulary; Classroom techniques; Use of authentic materials)
- Testing and Evaluation: (Principles, Types, Objectives of testing and evaluation)
- Phonetics and Phonology; Syntax and
The Syllabus covers all important topics related to Urdu Language and Literature. It deals with the Origin & Development of Urdu Language, Deccan Urdu Literature. Evolution & Development of different Forms of Literature, both in Prose and Poetry with reference to the works of prominent writers and poets, Literature Movements and Criticism. The Syllabus is detailed as follows :
1. ORIGIN & DEVELOPMENT OF URDU LANGUAGE
Three different periods of Indo-Aryan Language. Maghribi Hindi Aur Uski Boliyan, Khadi Boli Ka Irteqa. Urdu ke Aaghaz Ke Barey Mein Mukhtalif Nazariyat.
2. DECCANIYAT :
- Bahmani Daur : Fakhruddin Nizami (Kadamrao Padamrao).
- Adilshahi Daur : Nusrati (Gulshan-e-Ishq)
- Qutubshahi Daur : Mohammaed Quli Qutub Shah (Deewas-e- Mohammed Quli QutubShah), Mulla Wajhi (Sabras & Qutub Mushtari), Ghawwasi (Saiful Mulook- o-Badeeuj Jamaal), Ibne Nishati (Phool Ban)
3.DEVELOPMENT OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF LITERATURE :
- POETRY :
- GHAZAL : (Tareef, Tareekh aur Tanqeed) The following Poets: Mir, Dard, Atish, Ghalib,Momin, Iqbal, Hasrat, Fani, Jigar, Firaq, Nasir
- QASEEDA: (Tareef, Tareekh aur Tanqeed) The following poets : Sauda and
- MARSIYA: (Tareef, Tareekh aur Tanqeed). The following poets: Mir Anees and Mirza
- RUBAYEE: (Tareef, Tareekh aur Tanqeed) The following Poets: Anees, Akbar, Amjad and Josh.
- MASNAVI: (Tareef, Tareekh aur Tanqeed) Masnavi Sehrul Bayaan (Mir Hasan),
Gulzar-e-Naseem (Daya Shanker Naseem), Zehr-e-Ishq (Nawab Mirza Shauq).
- NAZM : (Tareef, Tareekh aur Tanqeed) (Paband Nazm, Nazm-e-Murra, Azad Nazm, Sonnet, Triolet, Haiku and Mahiya) ; Nazeer, Hali, Akbar, Chakbast, Iqbal, Josh, Akhtarul Imaan, Sardar Jafari, Noon Meem Rashid, Meeraji, Farhat Kaifi and Aziz
- DASTAN : (Tareef, Tareekh aur Tanqeed) : Bagh-o-Bahar, Fasana-e-Ajayeb.
- NOVEL : (Tareef, Tareekh aur Tanqueed) Fasana-e-Azad (Ratan Nath Sharshar) Taubatun Nusooh (Deputy Nazeer Ahamed) Umrao Jan Ada (Mirza Hadi Ruswa) Gowdan (Prem Chand) Ek Chadar Maili si (Rajender Singh Bedi), Tedhi Lakeer (Ismath Chugtayee), Aiwane Ghazal (Jeelani Bano).
- AFSANA : (Tareef, Tareekh aur Tanqeed) Premchand (Najaat), Manto (Tobatek Singh), Krishen Chander (Mahalakshmi ka Pul), Quratul Ayen Hyder (Nazaara Darmiyan Hai).
- DRAMA : (Tareef, Tareekh aur Tanqeed) : Amaanat (Indra Sabha). Agha Hashr Kashmiri (Said-e-Hawas), Imtiyaz Ali Taj (Anarkali), Habeeb Tanweer (Agra Bazaar), Mohammed Hasan (Zahaak).
- INSHAIYA : (Tareef, Tareekh aur Tanqeed) Khaja Hasan Nizami (Sipara-e-Dil), Rasheed Ahmed Siddiqui (Ashufta Bayani Meri) Patras Bukhari (Mazameen-e-Patras).
- KHUTOOT : (Tareef, Tareekh aur Tanqeed) Ghalib (Urdu-e-Mualla), Moulana Azad (Ghubar- e-Khatir).
- SAWANEH NIGARI : (Tareef, Tareekh aur Tanqeed) : Yadgaar-e-Ghalib, Nazeer Ahmed Ki Kahani Kuch Unki Kuch Meri
- LITERARY CRITICISM : (Tareef aur Tareekh)
- Tazkeron Mein Tanqeedi Nuqoosh : Nikatush-Shoara, Gulshan-e-Bekhar, Aab-e-Hayat.
- Hali ke Tanqeedi Nazariyat : Muqaddama-e-Sher-o-Shairi.
- Mukhtalif Tanqeedi Dabistaan (Unki Tareef aur Tareekh) : Taassurati Tanqeed, Jamaliyati Tanqeed, Nafsiyati Tanqeed, Marxi Tanqeed aur Saakhtiyati Tanqeed.
- Mumtaz Naqideen : Hali, Shibli, Niyaz Fatehpuri, Waheeduddin Salim, Firaq, Ehtesham Hussain, Kalimuddin Ahmed, Aale-Ahmed Suroor, Mughni
- DIFFERENT LITERARY MOVEMENTS : (Their Contribution)
Fort William College, Delhi College, St. George College, Dabistane Dilli Dabistane Lucknow, Aligarh Tahreek, Jamia Osmania and Darut Tarjuma, Taraqqi Pasand Tahreek, Halqa-e-Arbaab-e-Zauq, Jadeediyat.
- URDU JOURNALISM, TRANSLATION & MASS – MEDIA, Print and
50% of questions will be set in Sanskrit and the remaining 50% questions will be set in ENGLISH. In writing Sanskrit Devanagari should be used.
- General introduction to Vedic literature Four Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Upanishads and
- The Ramayana and Mahabharata – The age of their composition, Social and Political conditions revealed-Their influence on later
- Study of the following poets, their works and their age Bhasa-Kalidasa-Bharavi-Naga-Sri Harsha-Bhavabuthi-harsha Vardhana-Visakhatatta-Bhattanarayana-Dandin Banabhatta,
- History of classical sanskrit literature-the origin and development of different types of literary compositions – Mahakavya – Laghukavya -Historical Kavya – Lyric Poetry – Diadactic poetry – Fable – Drama (Basic knowledge of Dasarupakas) – Gadya
- Alankaras – Simple definitions and examples of, without varieties upama – rupaka – utpreksha – Atisayokti – Sandeha – Bhrantiman – Samaskoti – Aprastutaprasamsa – Dipaka – Tulya Yogita – Arathantharanyasa Drushtanta – Kavyalingam – Ananvyalankara- Swabhavokti.
- Grammar – Ajanta Sadharana Sabdas in all genders – Halanta Sadharana Sabdas in all genders – Sarvanama sabdas in all genderspati – Mati – Atman – Rajan –
- Conjugations – I, IV, VI and X conjugations in (1) Lat (present tense) (2) Lit (Past perfect),
(3) Lrit (Second future), Lot (imperative mood) (5) Lang (past perfect), (6) Vidhiling (potential mood).
- Samasas – Tatpurusha – Karmadharaya – Dvandva – Ekasesh – Dvigu – Bahu vrihi – Avyavibhava.
- Sandhi’s :
- Ach-sandhi-Guna-Vridhi-Savarnadirgha-Prakrutibhava-Purvarupa-Pararupa- Ayavayava-Yanadesa.
- Philology: Origin of the language – Classification of languages into various groups – Indo European group – Satam and Kentum – languages – Phonetic changes and their causes- Samantic changes and their causes.
- Chandas-Vrattas (I) Vamsastham (ii) Indra Vajra (iii) Upendra Vajra (iv) Bhujanga Prayatam (v) Manda Kranta (vi) Sardulavikriditam (vii) Sikharini (viii) Sragdhara (ix) Vasantatilakam (x)
- Real Analysis
- Finite, countable and uncountable sets – Real Number system R – infimum and supremum of a subset of R – Bolzano – Weierstrass theorem.
- Sequences, convergence, limit superior and limit inferior of sequences, sub sequences, Heine Borel Theorem.
- Infinite series – Tests of convergence.
- Continuity and uniform continuity of real valued functions of real variable. Monotonic functions and functions of bounded variation.
- Differentiability and mean value theorems. Riemann integrability. Sequences and Series of functions.
II. Metric Spaces
Metric spaces – completeness, compactness and connectedness – continuity and uniform continuity of functions from one metric space into another.
Topological spaces – base and subbase – continuous function.
Primes and composite numbers – Fundamental Theorem of arithmetic – divisibility –
congruences – Fermat’s theorem – Wilson’s Theorem – Euler’s Ǿ – function.
IV. Group Theory
Groups, subgroups, normal subgroups – quotient groups – homomorphisms and isomorphism theorems – permutation groups, cyclic groups, Cayley’s theorem. Sylow’s theorems and their applications.
V. Ring Theory
Rings, integral domains, fields – subrings and ideals – Quotient rings – homomorphisms – Prime ideals and maximal ideals – polynomial rings – Irreducibility of polynomials – Euclidean domains and principal ideal domains.
VI. Vector Spaces
Vector Spaces, Subspaces – Linear dependence and independence of vectors – basis and dimension – Quotient spaces – Inner product spaces – Orthonormal basis – Gram – Schmidt process.
VII. Matrix Theory
Linear transformations – Rank and nullity – change of bases.
Matrix of a linear transformation – singular and non-singular matrices – Inverse of matrix – Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrix and of linear transformation – Cayley – Hamilton’s theorem.
VIII. Complex Analysis
Algebra of complex numbers – the complex plane – Complex functions and their Analyticity –
Cauchy-Riemann equations – Mobius transformations. Power Series.
Complex Integration – Cauchy’s theorem – Morera’s Theorem – Cauchy’s integral formula – Liouville’s theorem – Maximum modules principle – Schwarz’s lemma – Taylor’s series – Laurents series. Calculus of residues and evaluation of integrals.
IX. Ordinary Differential Equation
Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) of first order and first degree – Different methods of solving them – Exact Differential equations and integrating factors.
ODE of first order and higher degree – equations solvable for p, x and y – Clairaut’s equations – Singular Solutions.
Linear differential equations with constant coefficients and variable coefficients –
variation of parameters.
X. Partial Differential Equations
Formation of differential equations (PDE) – Lagrange and Charpit methods for solving first order
– PDE’s – Cauchy problem for first order PDE’s Classification of second order PDE’s – General solution of higher order PDE’s with constant coefficients.
- Mathematical Methods of Physics
Dimensional analysis. Vector algebra and vector calculus. Linear algebra, matrices, Cayley-Hamilton Theorem. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Linear ordinary differential equations of first & second order, Special functions (Hermite, Bessel, Laguerre and Legendre functions). Fourier series, Fourier and Laplace transforms. Elements of complex analysis, analytic functions; Taylor & Laurent series; poles, residues and evaluation of integrals. Elementary probability theory, random variables, binomial, Poisson and normal distributions. Central limit theorem.
Data interpretation and analysis. Precision and accuracy. Error analysis, propagation of errors. Least squares fitting, Linear and non-linear curve fitting and Chi-Square Test.
II. Classical Mechanics
Newton’s laws. Dynamical systems, Phase space dynamics, stability analysis. Central force motions. Two body Collisions – scattering in laboratory and Centre of mass frames. Rigid body dynamics- moment of inertia tensor. Non-inertial frames and pseudoforces. Variational principle. Generalized coordinates. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism and equations of motion. Conservation laws and cyclic coordinates. Periodic motion: small oscillations, normal modes. Special theory of relativity- Lorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics and mass-energy equivalence.
III. Electromagnetic Theory
Electrostatics : Gauss’s law and its applications, Laplace and Poisson equations, boundary value problems. Magnetostatics : Biot-Savart law, Ampere’s theorem. Electromagnetic induction. Maxwell’s equations in free space and linear isotropic media; boundary conditions on the fields at interfaces. Scalar and vector potentials, gauge invariance. Electromagnetic waves in free space. Dielectrics and conductors. Reflection and refraction, polarization, Fresnel’s law, interference, coherence, and diffraction. Dynamics of charged particles in static and uniform electromagnetic fields. Charged particles in inhomogeneous fields.
IV. Quantum Mechanics
Wave-particle duality. Schrödinger equation (time-dependent and time-independent). Eigenvalue problems (particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, etc.). Tunneling through a barrier. Wave-function in coordinate and momentum representations. Commutators and Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Dirac notation for state vectors. Motion in a central potential : orbital angular momentum, angular momentum algebra, spin, addition of angular momenta; Hydrogen aom. Stern-Gerlach experiment. Time-independent perturbation theory and applications. Variational method. Time dependent perturbation theory and Fermi’s golden rule, selection rules. Identical particles, Pauli exclusion principle, spin-statistics connection.
V. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics
Laws of thermodynamics and their significance. Thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell relations, chemical potential, phase equilibria. Phase space, micro-and macro-states. Micro-canonical, canonical and grand-canonical ensembles and partition functions. Free energy and its connection with thermodynamic quantities. Classical and quantum statistics. Bose and Fermi gases. Principle of detailed balance. Blackbody radiation and Planck’s distribution law.
Semiconductors devices (diodes, junctions, transistors, field effect devices, homo- and hetero-junction devices), device structure, device characteristics, frequency dependence and applications. Opto- electronic devices (solar cells, photo-detectors, LEDs). Operational amplifiers and their applications. Digital techniques and applications (Logic circuits, registers, counters and comparators). A/D and D/A converters. Microprocessor microcontroller basics. Fundamentals of communication electronics, modulation techniques.
VII. & Molecular Physics
Quantum states of an electron in an atom. Electron spin. Spectrum of helium and alkali atom. Relativistic corrections for energy levels of hydrogen atom, hyperfine structure and isotopic shift, width of spectrum lines, LS & JJ couplings. Zeeman, Paschen-Bach & Stark effects. Electron spin resonance. Nuclear magnetic resonance, chemical shift. Frank-Condon principle. Electronic, rotational, vibrational and Raman spectra of diatomic molecules, selection rules. Lasers : spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein A & B coefficients. Optical pumping, population inversion, rate equation. Modes of resonators and coherence length.
VIII. Condensed Matter Physics
Bravais lattices. Reciprocal lattice. Diffraction and the structure factor. Bonding of solids. Elastic properties, phonons, lattice specific heat. Free electron theory and electronic specific heat. Response and relaxation phenomena. Drude model of electrical and thermal conductivity. Hall effect and thermoelectric power. Electron motion in a periodic potential, band theory of solids : metals, insulators and semiconductors. Superconductivity : type-I and type-II superconductors. Josephson junctions. Superfluidity. Defects and dislocations. Ordered phases of matter : translational and orientational order, kinds of liquid crystalline order. Quasi crystals.
IX. Nuclear and Particle Physics
Basic nuclear properties ; size, shape and charge distribution, spin and parity. Binding energy, semi- empirical mass formula, liquid drop model. Nature of the nuclear force, form of nucleon-nucleon potential, charge-independence and charge-symmetry of nuclear forces. Deuteron problem. Evidence of shell structure, single-particle shell model, its validity and limitations. Elementary ideas of alpha, beta and gamma decays and their selection rules. Fission and fusion. Nuclear reactions, reaction mechanism, compound nuclei and direct reactions.
- Mathematical Methods of Physics
Green’s function. Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and three dimensions). Elements of computational techniques : root of functions, interpolation, extrapolation, integration by trapezoid and Simpson’s rule, Solution of first order differential equation using Runge- Kutta method. Finite difference methods. Tensors. Introductory group theory.
Basic concepts of dynamical systems, Poisson brackets and canonical transformations. Symmetry, invariance and Noether’s theorem. Hamilton-Jacobi theory.
III. Electromagnetic Theory
Dispersion relations in plasma. Lorentz invariance of Maxwell’s equation. Transmission lines and wave guides. Radiation- from moving charges and dipoles and retarded potentials.
IV. Quantum Mechanics
Spin-orbit coupling, fine structure. WKB approximation. Elementary theory of scattering : phase shifts, partial waves, Born approximation. Relativistic quantum mechanics : Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. Semi-classical theory of radiation.
V. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics
First- and second-order phase transitions. Diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and ferromagnetism. Ising model. Bose-Einstein condensation. Diffusion equation. Random walk and Bronian motion. Introduction to nonequilibrium processes.
VI. Condensed Matter Physics
Electron spin resonance, Nuclear magnetic resonance, chemical shift and applications. X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron micrscopy and transimission electron microscopy.
VII.Nuclear and Particle Physics
Classification of fundamental forces. Elementary particles and their quantum numbers (charge, spin, parity, isospin, strangeness, etc.). Quark model, baryons and mesons. C, P, and T invariance. Application of symmetry arguments to particle reactions. Parity non-conservation in weak interaction. Relativistic kinematics.
- Atomic structure and chemical bonding – structure and bonding in homo and hetero nuclear molecules. Applications of VSEPR, Valence Bond and Molecular orbital theories in explaining the structures of simple
- Transition elements and coordination compounds – physical and chemical characteristics of transition elements – Bonding theories – crystal field theory – crystal field splitting patterns in various geometries. Calculation of CFSE – Jahn-Teller effect – Application of MO theory to octahedral and square planar complexes – Electronic spectra of complexes – Russell Saunders coupling – term symbols – spectra of octahedral and tetrahedral complexes – charge transfer spectra – magnetic properties of complex
- Metal – ligand equilibria in solution – step wise and overall stability constants – factors affecting the stability of metal complexes – Pearson’s theory of hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) – Chelate
- Reaction mechanisms in complexes – Inert and level complexes – Ligand substitution reactions of octahedral complexes – Acid hydrolysis, base hydrolysis – conjugate base mechanism – Anation reactions – substitution reactions of square planar complexes – Trans effect – Electron transfer reactions – Inner and outer sphere
- Metal complexes – EAN rule – structure and bonding of metal carbonyls of Mn, Fe, Co and Ni – Metal nitrosyls – structure and bonding.
- Cages and ring compounds – preparation, structure and reactions of boranes and carboranes – Boron-nitrogen and Sulfur-nitrogen cyclic
- Metal clusters – factors favoring M-M bonds – Structure and bonding in Re2Cl82-, Mo6Cl84+, Nb6X122+, Re3Cl9 and Re3Cl123-.
- Bio-inorganic chemistry – metal complexes as oxygen carriers – hemoglobin and myoglobin – oxygen transport – non heme proteins – hemerythrin and hemocyanin.
- Analytical chemistry – chromatography – general principles involved in separations by paper, thin layer and column chromatography – GC and
Brief review of concepts of I and II laws of thermodynamics. Concept of entropy. Entropy as a state function. Calculation of entropy changes in various processes. Entropy changes in an ideal gas. Entropy changes on mixing of ideal gases. Entropy as a function of V and T. Entropy as a function of P and T. Entropy change in isolated systems- Clausius inequality. Entropy change as criterion for spontaneity and equilibrium.
Third law of thermodynamics. Evaluation of absolute entropies from heat capacity data for solids, liquids and gases. Standard entropies and entropy changes of chemical reactions. Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies (A and G). A and G as a criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity. Physical significance of A and G. Driving force for chemical reactions- relative signs of ∆H and ∆S.
Thermodynamic relations. Gibbs equations. Maxwell relations. Temperature dependence of G. Gibbs- Helmholtz equation. Pressure dependence of G.
Chemical potential: Gibbs equations for non-equilibrium systems. Material equilibrium. Phase equilibium. Clapeyron equation and Clausius-Clapeyron equation .
Conditions for equilibrium in a closed system. Chemical potential of ideal gases. Ideal-gas reaction equlibrium-derivation of equilibrium constant. Temperature dependence of equilibrium constant-the van’t Hoff equation.
Solutions: Specifiying the Solution composition. Partial molar poperties-significance. Relation between solution volume and partial molar volume. Measurement of partial molar volumes- slope and intercept methods. The chemical potential. Variation of chemical potential with T and P. Gibbs-Duhem equation-derivation and significance
Ideal solutions. Thermodynamic properties of ideal solutions. Mixing quantities. Vapour pressure-Raoult’s law. Thermodynamic properties of ideally dilute solutions. Vapour pressure- Henry’s law.
Nonideal systems. Concept of fugacity, fugacity coefficeient. Determination of fugacity. Non ideal solutions. Activities and activity coefficients. Standard-state conventions for non ideal solutions. Determination of activity coefficients from vapour pressure measurements. Activity coefficients of nonvolatile solutes using Gibbs-Duhem equation.
Multicomponent phase equilibrium: Vapour pressure lowering, freezing point depression and boiling point elevation
2. Statistical Thermodynamics
Concepts of distribution and probability. Estimation of probability and the most probable distribution. Systems composed of noninteracting particles. Derivation of Boltzmann distribution law.
The molecular partition function. Systems composed of interacting particles. The concept of ensemble and canonical ensemble. Canonical partition function and its relation to molecular partition function. The factorization of molecular partition function – translational, rotational, vibrational and electronic partition functions. Derivation of expressions for translational, rotational (diatomic) and vibrational partition functions. Relationship between partition functions and thermodynamic functions.
The relationship between partition functions and thermodynamic functions. Specific heats of solids – Einstein equation of heat capacity of solids – derivation. Explanation of heat capacity at very low and very high temperatures – Dulong and Petits Law. Debye theory.
The entropy of a monoatomic ideal gas. The Sackur-Tetrode equation- derivation. Mean translational and vibrational energies.
Electrochemical Cells : Derivation of Nernst equation – problems. Chemical and concentration cells (with and without transference). Liquid junction potential – derivation of the expression for LJP – its determination and elimination. Applications of EMF measurements : Solubility product, potentiometric titrations, determination of transport numbers, equilibrium constant measurements.
Decomposition potential and its significance. Electrode polarization – its causes and elimination. Concentration overpotential.
Concept of activity and activity coefficients in electrolytic solutions. The mean ionic activity coefficient. Debye-Huckel theory of electrolytic solutions. Debye-Huckel limiting law (derivation not required). Calculation of mean ionic activity coefficient. Limitations of Debye- Huckel theory. Extended Debye-Huckel law.
Theory of electrolytic conductance. Derivation of Debye-Huckel-Onsager equation – its validity and limitations.
Concept of ion association – Bjerrum theory of ion association (elementary treatment) – ion association constant – Debye-Huckel-Bjerrum equation.
4. QUANTUM CHEMISTRY
Black body radiation-Planck’s concept of quantization-Planck’s equation, average energy of an oscillator (derivation not required). Wave particle duality and uncertain principle- significance of these for microscopic entities. Emergence of quantum mechanics. Wave mechanics and Schroedinger wave equation.
Operators-operator algebra. Commutation of operators, linear operators.Complex functions. Hermitian operators. Operators Ñ and Ñ2 . Eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. Degeneracy. Linear combination of eigenfunctions of an operator. Well behaved functions. Normalized and orthogonal functions.
Postulates of quantum mechanics. Physical interpretation of wave function. Observables and operators. Measurability of operators. Average values of observables. The time dependent Schrodinger equation. Separation of variables and the time-independent Schrodinger equation..
Theorems of quantum mechanics. Real nature of the eigen values of a Hermitian operator- significance. Orthogonal nature of the eigen values of a Hermitian operator-significance of orthogonality. Expansion of a function in terms of eigenvalues. Eigen functions of commuting operators-significance. Simultaneous measurement of properties and the uncertainty principle. Particle in a box- one dimensional and three dimensional. Plots of y and y2-discussion. Degeneracy of energy levels. Comparison of classical and quantum mechanical particles. Calculations using wave functions of the particle in a box-orthoganality, measurability of energy, position and momentum, average values and probabilities. Application to the spectra of conjugated molecules.
Cartesian, Polar and spherical polar coordinates and their interrelations
Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom– separation into three equations. Hydrogen like wave functions. Radial and angular functions. Quantum numbers n, l and m and their importance. The radial distribution functions. Hydrogen like orbitals and their representation. Polar plots, contour plots and boundary diagrams.
Many electron systems. Approximate methods. The variation method-variation theorem and its proof. Trial variation function and variation integral. Examples of variational calculations. Paricle in a box. Construction of trial function by the method of linear combinations. Variation parameters. Secular equations and secular determinant..
Bonding in molecules. Molecular orbital theory-basic ideas. Construction of MOs by LCAO , H2+ ion. The variationan integral for H2+ ion. Detailed calculation of Wave functions and energies for the bonding and antibonding MOs. Physical picture of bonding and antibonding wave functions. Energy diagram. The MO and VB wave functions for H2 molecule and their comparision
5. Chemical Kinetics
Theories of reaction rates : Collision theory, steric factor. Tranition state theory. Reaction coordinate, activated complex and the transition state. Thermodynamic formulation of transition state theory. Unimolecular reactions and Lindamann’s theory.
Complex reactions- Opposing reactions, parallel reactions and consecutive reactions(all first order type). Chain reactions-general characteristics, steady state treatment. Example- H2-Br2 reaction. Derivation of rate law.
Effect of structure on reactivity- Linear free energy relationships. Hammett and Taft equations- substituent( s and s*) and reaction constant ( r and r* )with examples.
Factors affecting reaction rates in solution. Diffusion controlledr eactions. Influence of dielectric constant and ionic strength on ion-ion, ion-dipole and dipole-dipole reactions. Primary and secondary salt effects. Kinetic isotope effects: Primary and secondary isotope effects. Solvent isotope effects.
Enzyme catalysis: Chemical catalysis and enzyme catalysis – distinction – energy considerations and rate accelerations – examples.
Michaelis-Menten mechanisms of enzyme catalyzed reactions involving one and two intermediates. Steady-sate approximation. Derivation of kinetic equations. Evaluation of kinetic parameters. Enzyme-substrate complex: Fischer’s lock and key and Koshland’s induced fit hypotheses. Specificity of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Discussion of the various types of forces involved in the formation of E-S complex. pH dependence of enzyme-catalyzed reactions – the kinetics and the equations involved.
Electronic transitions in molecules. The Franck Condon principle. Electronically excited molecules- singlet and triplet states. Radiative life times of excited states-theoretical treatment. Measured lifetimes. Quantum yield and its determination. Actinomety-ferrioxalate and uranyl oxalate actinometers-problems.
Derivation of fluorescence and phosphorescence quantum yields. E-type delayed fluorescence- evaluation of triplet energy splitting(∆EST). Photophysical processes- photophysical kinetics of unimolecular reactions. Calculation of rate constants of various photophysical processes-problems, State diagrams
Photochemical primary processes. Types of photochemical reactions- electron transfer, photodissociation, addition, abstraction, oxidation and isomerization reactions with examples. Effect of light intensity on the rates of photochemical reactions. Photosensitization. Quenching- Stern Volmer equation. Experimental set up of a photochemical reaction. Introduction to fast reactions- Principle of flash photolysis
7. Solid state chemistry
Magnetic properties of solids- classification of magnetic materials, Magnetic susceptibility, Langevin diamagnetism, Weiss theory of para magnetism
Electronic properties of metals, insulators and semi conductors: Electronic structure of solids, Band theory, band structure of metals, insulators and semiconductors. Electrons, holes and Excitons. The temperature dependence of conductivity of extrinsic semi conductors. Photo conductivity and photovoltaic effect-p-n junctions.
Superconductivity. Occurrence of superconductivity. Destruction of superconductivity by magnetic fields-Meisner effect. Types of superconductors. Theories of super conductivity- BCS theory.
- IUPAC nomenclature of organic molecules including structural, positional, functional, regio- and
- Molecular representations: Wedge, Fischer, Newman and Saw-horse formulae, their description and interconversions. Stereoisomers-classification-configuration –R,S- nomenclature- Criteria for Chirality. Axially chiral allenes, spiranes, alkylidene cycloalkanes, chiral biaryls, atropisomerism. Planar chiral ansa compounds and trans- cyclooctene. Helically chiral compounds, Determination of absolute configuration by chemical correlation methods. Determination of configuration in E,Z-nomenclature: Spectral and Chemical methods of configuration determination of E,Z isomers. Determination of configuration in aldoximes and ketoximes.
- Nature of Bonding in Organic Molecules and Aromaticity, Delocalized chemical bonding- conjugation, cross conjugation, resonance, hyperconjugation, tautomerism, Huckle’s rule and the concept of aromaticity, aromaticity in benzenoid and non-benzenoid compounds, alternant and non-alternant hydrocarbons, metallocenes- Ferrocene, Azulenes, Fulvenes, Annulenes, anti-aromaticity, pseudo-aromaticity, homo-aromaticity.
- Reactive intermediates and Molecular rearrangements. Reactive Intermediates: Generation, detection, structure, stability and reactions of carbocations, carbanions, carbenes, nitrenes and free radicals. Molecular rearrangements: Definition and classification. Molecular rearrangements involving 1) electron deficient carbon: Wagner- Meerwein, Pinacol- Pinacolone, Allylic and Wolf rearrangement. 2) electron deficient Nitrogen: Hofmann, Lossen, Curtius, Schmidt and Beckmann rearrangements 3) electron deficient Oxygen: Baeyer-Villiger oxidation. 4) Base catalyzed rearrangements: Benzilic acid, Favourski, Transannular, Sommlett- Hauser and Smiles rearrangement
- Organic Reaction mechanism-I Electrophilic addition to carbon-carbon double bond: Stereoselective addition to carbon-carbon double bond; anti addition- Bromination and epoxidation followed by ring opening. Syn addition of OsO4 and KMnO Hydroboration.Michael reaction. Elimination reactions E2, E1, E1CB mechanisms. Orientation and stereoselectivity in E2 eliminations. Pyrolytic syn elimination and α-elimination, elimination Vs substitution. Determination of reaction mechanism: Energy profiles of addition and elimination reactions, transition states, product isolation and structure of intermediates, use of isotopes, chemical trapping, crossover experiments.
- Importance of heterocyclic compounds as drugs. Nomenclature of heterocyclic systems based on ring size, number and nature of hetero atoms. Synthesis and reactivity of pyrrole, furan, thiophene, pyridine, indole, benzofuran, benzothiophene, quinoline,
- Alkaloids and terpenoids- Importance of natural products as drugs. Isolation of natural products by steam distillation, solvent extraction and chemical methods. Structure determination and synthesis of papaverine, nicotine and quinine-General methods in the structure determination of terpenes. Isoprene rule, structure determination and synthesis of α- terpeniol and
- Organic Photochemistry, Photochemical energy, Frank-Condon principles, Jablonski diagram, singlet and triplet states, dissipation of photochemical energy, photosensitization, quenching, quantum efficiency and quantum yield. Photochemistry of carbonyl compounds – n®p* and p®p* transitions. Norrish type-I and Norrish type-II cleavages. Paterno-Buchi reactions, Photoreduction, photochemistry of enones – hydrogen abstraction, rearrangements of a,b- unsaturated ketones and cyclohexadienones, photochemistry of p-benzoquinones. Dienes – photochemistry of 1,3-butadienes, (2+2) additions leading to cage structures, photochemistry of cyclohexadienes, photochemistry of aromatic compounds, exicited state of benzene and its 1,2-, 1,4- additions
- Pericyclic Reactions Molecular orbital symmetry, Frontier orbitals of ethylene, 1,3 butadiene, 1,3,5 hexatriene and allyl system. Classification of pericyclic reactions. Woodward – Hoffmann correlation diagrams. FMO and PMO (Mobius Huckel) approaches. Electrocyclic reactions-Conrotatory and disrotatory. 4n, 4n+2 and allyl systems. Cycloadditions-antarafacial and suprafacial additions, 4n and 4n+2 systems, 2+2 addition of ketene, 1,3 dipolar cycloadditions Sigmatropic rearrangements – Suprafacial and antarafacial shifts of H, Sigmatropic shifts involving carbon moieties, 3,3 and 5,5 sigmatropic rearrangements. Structure determination of organic compounds by UV IR, NMR an Mass Various electronic transitions, Beer-Lambert’s law, effect of solvent on electronic transitions, ultraviolet bands for carbonyl compounds, unsaturated carbonyl Compounds, dienes, conjugated polyenes, Effect of hydrogen bonding and solvent effects-NMR–Shielding mechanism, mechanism of measurement, chemical shift values, chemical exchange, complex spin-spin interaction, 13C NMR spectroscopy, chemical shift-Mass spectral fragmentation of organic compounds, common functional groups, molecular-ion peak, metastable peak,
CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF PLANTS
Cell Wall : Structure and functions, biogenesis, growth.
Plasma membrane : Structure, models and functions : Sites for ATPases, Ion carriers, Channels and pumps, Receptors.
Plasmodesmata : Structure, Role in movement of molecules and macromolecules, Comparison with gap junctions.
Chloroplast : Structure, genome organization, gene expression, RNA editing, nucleo- chloroplastic interactions.
Mithochondria : Structure, genome organization, Biogenesis.
Plant Vacuoles : Tonoplast membrane, ATPases, transporters, as storage organelle.
Nucleus : Structure, nuclear pores, nucleosome organization, DNA structure : A, B and Z forms, replication, damage and repair, transcription, Plant promoters and transcription
factors, splicing mRNA transport, nucleolus, rRNA biosynthesis.
Ribosomes : Structure, site of protein synthesis, mechanism of translation, initiation, elongation and termination; structure and role of tRNA.
Protein sorting : Targeting of proteins to organelles.
Cell shape and motility : The cytoskeleton; organization and role of microtubules and microfilaments; motor movements; implications in flagellar and other movements.
Cell cycle and apoptosis : Control mechanisms; role of cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases; retinoblastoma and E2F proteins; cytokinesis and cell plate formation; mechanisms of programmed cell death.
Other cellular organelles : Structure and functions of microbodies, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, endo plasmic reticulum.
Techniques in cell biology : Immuno techniques; in situ hybridization, FISH, GISH; confocal microscopy.
CYTOLOGY, GENETICS AND CYTOGENETICS
Chromatin organization : Chromosome structure and Packaging of DNA, molecular organization of centromere and telomere; nucleolus and ribosomal RNA genes ; euchromatin and heterochromatin ; karyotype analysis ; banding patterns ; specialized types of chromosomes ; polytene, lampbrush, B-chromosomes and sex chromosomes ; molecular basis of chromosome pairing.
Structural and numerical alterations in chromosomes : Duplication, deficiency, inversion and translocation ; autopolyploids ; allopolyploids ; evolution of major crop plants.
Genetics of prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles : genetic recombination in phage ; genetic transformation, conjugation and transduction in bacteria ; genetics of mitochondria and chloroplasts cytoplasmic male sterility.
Gene structure and expression : Genetic fine structure ; cis – trans test ; Benzer’s experiment; introns and their significance ; RNA splicing ; regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Genetic recombination and genetic mapping : Recombination ; independent assortment and crossing over ; molecular mechanism of recombination ; role of RecA and RecBCD enzymes ; site-specific recombination ; chromosome mapping, linkage groups, genetic markers, construction molecular maps.
Mutations : Spontaneous and induced mutations ; physical and chemical mutagens ; molecular basis of gene mutations ; transposable elements in prokaryotes and eukaryotes ; mutations induced transposons ; site-directed mutagenesis ; DNA damage and repair mechanisms.
Plant Breeding : Principles and methods of plant breeding ; Marker assisted breeding. Biostatistics : Mean, Variance, Standard deviation, Standard error, Student’t’ test, chi-square and ANOVA.
Molecular cytogenetic : Nuclear DNA content; C-value paradox; cot curve and its significance; restriction mapping – concept and techniques ; multigene families and their evolution.
BIOLOGY AND DIVERSITY OF LOWEER PLANTS : CRYPTOGAMS
Microbiological techniques : Pure culture, enrichment and anaerobic culture.
Importance of microorganisms : Microbes in medicine, agriculture and environment. Microbial growth : Nutritional requirements of microorganisms and methods to measure growth.
Microbial Ecology : Genetrification ; phosphorous solubilization ; nitrogen fixation
Phycology : Thallus organization ; cell ultra structure ; reproduction (vegetative, sexual, asexual) ; criteria for classification of algae : pigments, reserve food, flagella ; classification, salient features of Chlorophyta, Charophyta, Xanthophyta, Bacillariophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta ; algal blooms, algal biofertilizers ; algae as food, feed and uses in industry. Mycology : General characters of fungi ; substrate relationship in fungi ; cell ultrastructure ; unicellular and multicellular organization ; cell wall composition ; nutrition (saprobic, biotropic, symbiotic) ; reproduction (vegetative, asexual, sexual) ; heterothallism ; heterokaryosis parasexuality ; Molecular aspects in classification.
General account of Mastigomycotina, Zygomycotina, Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, Deuteromycotina ; fungi in industry, medicine and as food ; fungal diseases in plants and humans ; Mycorrhizae ; fungi as biocontrol agents.
Bryophyta : Morphology, structure, reproduction and life history ; distribution ; classification, general account of Marchantiales, Junger maniales, Anthoceratales, Sphagnales, Funariales and Polytrcales ; economic and ecological importance.
Pteridophyta : Morphology, anatomy and reproduction ; classification ; evolution of stele ; heterospory and origin of seed habit; general account of fossil pteriodophyta ; introduction to Psilo psida, Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and Pteropsida.
TAXONOMY AND DIVERSITY OF SEED PLANTS
Introduction and classification of Gymnosperms
Structure and reproduction in Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales, Ephedrales, Welwitschiales and Gnetales.
The species concept: Taxonomic hierarchy, species, genus, family and other categories ; principles used in assessing relationship, delimitation of taxa and attribution of rank.
Salient features of the International Code of Botanical nomenclature.
Taxonomic tools : Herbarium ; floras ; histological, cytological, phytochemical, serological, biochemical and molecular techniques ; computers and GIS.
Systems of angiosperm classification : Phenetic versus phylogenetic systems ; cladistics in taxonomy ; relative merits and demerits of major systems of classification.
Concepts of phytogeography : Endemism, hotspots; plant explorations; invasions and introductions.
PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND METABOLISM
Energy flow : Principles of thermodynamics, free energy and chemical potential, redox reactions, structure and functions of ATP.
Fundamentals of enzymology : General aspects, allosteric mechanism, regulatory and active sites, isoenzymes, kinetics of enzymatic catalysis, Michaelis – Menton equation and its significance.
Membrane transport and translocation of water and solutes : Plant water relations, mechanism of water transport through xylem, passive and active solute transport, membrane transport proteins.
Signal transduction: Receptors and G-proteins, phospholipid signaling, role of cyclic nucleotides, calcium calmodulin cascade, diversity in protein kinases and phosphatases.
Photochemistry and photosynthesis : Photosynthetic pigments and light harvesting complexes, photo oxidation of water, mechanisms of electron and proton transport, carbon assimilation – the Calvin cycle, photorespiration and its significance, the C4 cycle, the CAM pathway, biosynthesis of starch and sucrose.
Respiration and lipid metabolism : Glycolysis, the TCA cycle, electron transport and ATP synthesis, pentose phosphate pathway, glyoxylate cycle, alternative oxidase system, structure and function of lipids, fatty acid biosynthesis, synthesis of membrane lipids, structural lipids and storage lipids and their catabolism.
Nitrogen fixation and metabolism : Biological nitrogen fixation, nodule formation and nod factors, mechanism of nitrate uptake and reduction, ammonium assimilation.
Photobiology : Photochromes and cryptochromes, photophysiology of light –induce responses, cellular localization.
Plant growth regulators and elicitors : Physiological effects and mechanism of action of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid, brassinosteroids, polymines, jasmonic acid and salicyclic acid.
The flowering process : Photoperiodism, endogenous clock and its regulation, floral induction and development – genetic and molecular analysis, role of vernalization.
Stress physiology : Plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress; mechanisms of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, HR and SAR, water deficit and drought resistance, salinity stress, metal toxicity, freezing and heat stress, oxidative stress.
Coping with biotic stress : Chemical control, Biological control, IPM
PLANT DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION
Shoot development : Organization of the shoot apical meristem (SAM); control of cell division and cell to cell communication; control of tissue differentiation especially xylem and phloem ; secretory ducts and laticifers.
Phyllotaxy and leaf differentiation
Root development : Organization of root apical meristem (RAM); cell fates and lineages; vascular tissue differentiation; homeotic muntants in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum, sex determination.
Male gametophyte: Structure of anthers; microsporogenesis, role of tapetum; pollen development and gene expression; male sterility; sperm dimorphism and hybrid seed production; pollen germination, pollen tube growth and guidance ; pollen storage ; pollen allergy, pollen embryos.
Female gametophyte: Ovule development; megasporogenesis; organization of the embryo sac, structure of the embryo sac cells.
Pollination, pollen – pistil interaction and fertilization : Floral characteristics, pollination mechanisms and vectors; self-incompatibility; double fertilization.
Seed development and fruit growth: Endosperm development during early, maturation and desiccation stages; embryogenesis, cell lineages during late embryo development; storage proteins of endosperm and embryo; polyembryony; apomixes; embryo culture; fruit maturation.
Dormancy: Seed dormancy; overcoming seed dormancy; bud dormancy.
Senescence and programmed cell death (PCD): Types of cell death, PCD in the life cycle of plants, metabolic changes associated with senescence and its regulation; influence of hormones and environmental factors on senescence.
Climate, soil and vegetation patterns of the world: Life zones; major biomes and major vegetation and sol types of the world.
Vegetation organization: Concepts of community and continuum ; analysis of communities(analytical and synthetic characters)
Ecological succession: Hydrosere and xerosere.
Ecosystem organization: Structure and functions; primary production (methods of measurement, global pattern, controlling factors); energy dynamics (trophic organization energy flow Pathways, ecological efficiencies); litter fall and decomposition (mechanism, substrate quality land climatic factors); global biogeochemical cycles of C,N,P and S; mineral cycles (pathways, processes, budgets) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
Biological diversity: Concept and levels; role of biodiversity in ecosystem functions and stability ; speciation and extinction; IUCN categories of threat; distribution and global patterns, terrestrial biodiversity hot spots; inventory.
Air, water and soil pollution: Kinds, sources, quality parameters; effects on plants ecosystems.
Climate change: Green house gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, CFCs: sources, trends and role); ozone layer and ozone hole ; consequences of climate change (CO2 fertilization, global warming, sea level rise, UV radiation).
Ecosystem stability : Concept (resistance and resilience); ecological perturbations (natural and anthropogenic) and their impact on plants and ecosystems ; ecology of plant invasion
; environmental impact assessment ; ecosystem restoration.
Ecological management : Concepts; sustainable development; sustainability indicators.
PLANT RESOURCE UTILIZATION AND CONSERVATION
Plant Biodiversity and sustainable development
Origin, evolution, botany, cultivation and uses of (i) Food forage and fodder crops (ii) fibre crops (iii) medicinal and aromatic plants and (iv) vegetable oil-yielding crops. Ethnobotany Important fire-wood and timber – yielding plants and non-wood forest products (NWFPs) such as bamboos, rattans, raw materials for paper-making, gums, tannins, dyes, resins and fruits.
Green revolution : Benefits and adverse consequences.
Plants used as avenue trees for shade, pollution control and aesthetics.
Principles of conservation; extinctions; environmental status of plants based on International Union for Conservation of Nature.
Strategies for conservation – in situ conservation : International efforts and Indian initiatives
; protected areas in India – sanctuaries, national parks, biosphere reserves, wetlands, mangroves and coral reefs for conservation of wild biodiversity.
Strategies for conservation – ex situ conservation : Principles and practices; botanical gardens, field gene banks, seed banks, in vitro repositories, cryobanks; general account of the activities of Botanical Survey of India (BSI), National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) for conservation, non-formal conservation efforts.
BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING OF PLANTS AND MICROBES
Plant Biotechnology – Principles, scope and applications.
Plant cell and tissue culture : General introduction, scope, cellular differentiation, and totipotency.
Organogenesis and adventives embryogenesis : Morphogenesis; somatic embryogenesis.
Somatic hybridization : Protoplast isolation, fusion and culture.
Applications of plant tissue culture : Clonal propagation, artificial seed, production of hybrids and soma clones, production of secondary metabolites / natural products, cryopreservation and germplasm storage.
Recombinant DNA technology : Gene cloning principles and techniques, genomic / c DNA libraries, vectors, DNA synthesis and sequencing, polymerase chain reaction, DNA fingerprinting and DNA markers.
Genetic engineering of plants : Transgenic plants, Methods of gene transfer – Agrobacterium – medicated and microprojectile, chloroplast transformation, intellectual property rights, ecological risks and ethical concerns.
Microbial genetic manipulation : Bacterial transformation, selection of recombinants and transformants, genetic improvement of industrial microbes.
Genomics and proteomics : High throughput sequencing, genome projects, bioinformatics, functional genomics, microarrays.
General Concepts :
- Levels of structural organization :
Unicellular, colonial and multicellular forms. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. Levels of organization of tissues, organs & systems.
- Acoelomata, Pseudocoelomata, Coelomata, Proterostomia and
- Concepts of species and hierarchical taxa, biological nomenclature, classical methods of taxonomy of animals.
- General characteristics and classification of invertebrates up to class
- Protozoa: Locomotion, Nutrition and Reproduction in protozoa, Protozoan diseases of man.
- Porifera: Canal system in porifera, skeleton in porifera, Reproduction in
- Coelenterata : Polymorphism, Metagenesis, coral formation,Etenophora.
- Hemlinths: Common Helminthic parasites of Man – Taenia solium, Schistosoma sp., Ascaris, Ancylostoma, Oxyuris, Loa, Trichinella, Strongyloides – their life cycles. Parasitism and parasitic adaptations.
- Annelida: Excretory system, Coelom formation, coelom and
- Arthropoda: Mouthparts of Insects, useful and harmful insects, Metamorphosis in insects. Apiculture and sericulture in India, crustacean
- Mollusca: Respiritation, Torsion and De-torsion, pearl formation and Pearl
- Echinodermata: Echinoderm larvae, Water vascular
- General Characters and classification of chordates upto class, Origin of Chordates, phylogeny and affinities of Hemichordata, Retrogressive
- Vertebrate integument and derivatives, Comparative account of Digestive, Respiratory, Circulatory, Excretory and Reproductive systems of
- Pisciculture in India, Common edible fishes of Andhra
- Origin and evolution of Amphibia, Paedogenesis,
- Important Snakes of India,
- Flight adaptations and Migration in birds. Archeopteryx, Poultry in
- Adaptive radiation and Dentition in
CELL BIOLOGY :
- Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cell, Plasma Membrane-Ultrastructure, Permeability, intercellular communication, Endocytosis, Exocytosis, Phagocytosis, Active transport, membrane
- Structure & function of Intracellular organelles – Nucleus, Mitochondria, Golgi bodies, Iysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, plastids, vacuoles, Cell wall, Cytoskeleton and its role in
- Organization of genes and chromosomes – Operon, unique and repetitive DNA, structure of chromatin and chromosomes, heterochromatin, euchromatin, transposons.
- Cell division and cell cycle – Mitosis and meiosis, their regulation, steps in cell cycle, regulation and control of cell cycle.
- DNA replication, repair and recombination – Unit of replication, replication origin and replication fork, Recombinant technology, Transgenic and cloned animals, DNA damage and repair
- Protein synthesis – initiation, elongation and termination of Genetic
- Regulation of gene expression – Lac operon, Lambda operan
- Mendel’s law of inheritance – Critical review and
- Gene mapping methods : Linkage-complete and Incomplete linkage; Linkage maps, Recombination, mapping with molecular markers, somatic cell
- Crossing over : Types (Somatic or mitotic crossing over and Germinal or meiotic crossing over), theories about the mechanism of crossing over, tetrad analysis, and cytological detection of crossing
- Mutations : Types (Spontaneous and Induced), causes and detection, mutant types (lethal, conditional, biochemical, loss of function, gain of function, germinal versus somatic mutants), Molecular basis of
- Chromosomal aberrations (deletion, duplication, inversion and translocation, ploidy and their genetic implications); Autosomal abnormalities (Down’s syndrome, Trisomy- 13, -18); Sex anamolies (Turner’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, Hermaphroditism).
- Human genetics : Human karyotyping, Genetic disorders due to mutant genes (Huntington’s chorea), Inborn errors of metabolism-Pheynylketonuria, alkaptonuria, Sickle cell
SYSTEM AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY :
- Blood and circulation – Blood corpuscles, haemopoiesis, plasma function, blood groups, haemoglobin,
- Cardiovascular System : Neurogenic, myogenic hearts, cardiac cycle, heart as a pump, neural and chemical regulation of all
- Respiratory system – Transport of gases, exchange of gases, waste elimination, neural and chemical regulation of
- Nervous system – Neurons, action potential, Conduction of nerve impulse, synapse, Neurotransmitters.
- Muscle : Ultraa structure and mechanism of muscle
- Sense organs – Eye, Ear.
- Excretory system – Comparative physiology of excretion, urine formation,
- Osmaregulation – Osmoregulation in fishes, Hormonal control of
- Digestive system – Digestion, absorption, assimilation and
- Endocrinology and reproduction – Endocrine glands, basic mechanism of hormone action, hormones and diseases, reproduction in
- Chemical bonds (Covalent, Hydrogen and Ionic bonds, Van der waals interactions).
- Outline classification of organic compounds (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids).
- Order of protein structure, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary; Ramachandran
- Glycolysis, TCA cycle and their Biomedical importance. Pentose phosphate pathway, Gluconeogenesis. Redox Potentials, Mitochondrial electron transport system, Oxidative
- Origin of life – Modern concepts, theories of
- Isolation, Speciation, Natural
- Hardy weinberg’
- Population Genetics (Gene pool, Gene frequency), Genetic drift and convergent evolution, Adaptive
- Evolution of
- Zoogeographical realms of the
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY :
- Fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation formation of germ layers,
- Embryogenesis in
- Formation and function of foetal
- Types of
- Regualtion, genetic control of
- Development of Frog and chick.
- Histology of Mammalian tissues and organs – Epithelial, connective, blood, bone, cartilage, skin, stomach, intestine, liver, pancreas, kidney, Testis and Ovary
- Concept of
- Biogeochemical cycles (Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorous).
- Influence of environmental factors on animals, energy flow in Ecosystem, food chains, food web and trophic
- Community and population ecology. Ecological
- Environmental pollution-Air, water, land, noise, radioactive, thermal and visual, effects of pollution on ecosystem, prevention of
- Wildlife in India-conservation, Chipko
- Biodiversity-Economic significance, conservation, hot spots of
- Cells of the immune system : Lymphoid cells, Mononuclear cells, granulocytic cells, Mast cells.
- Organs of the immune system – primary and secondary lymphoid organs, lymphatic system.
- Antigens: Antigenic determinants or epitopes, immunogenicity,
- Innate (Non-specific immunity): Anatomical barriers, phagocytosis, NK cells, interferon.
- Humoral immunity: Immunoglobulins (fine structure of immunoglobulins and immunoglobulin classes); the complement system, Classical and alternate pathway,
- Cell mediated immunity : Mechanism of cell mediated immunity; Brief account on Antigen presentation, Major histocompatability
- Antigen-Antibody interactions : Affinity, Avidity, Cross-reactivity, precipitation reactions, and Agglutination reactions and
- Brief account on immunological Hypersensitivity disorders :
- Tolerance and Autoimmunity
- Immunodeficiency diseases –
- Immunization (Active and passive immunity).
Financial management : Meaning, nature, objectives and scope of financial management. Capital budgeting, process, techniques. Sources of finance. Cost of capital – cost of various sources of finance. Leverages – operating and financial leverages. Capital structure theories. Dividend decisions Working .capital management- cash, receivables and inventory management.
Financial and management accounting : Techniques of analysis of financial statements – comparative and common size statements, trend analysis and ratio analysis. Funds flow and cash flow analyses. Marginal costing and decision making.
Managerial economics : Meaning, nature and scope of managerial economics. Demand analysis. Production and cost analysis. Market structure – perfect and imperfect markets.
Business environment : Meaning and components of business environment. Industrial policies 1956, and 1991. Liberalization, privatization and globalization. WTO.
Marketing management :Meaning, concepts, nature, and scope of marketing management – Marketing environment. Consumer behavior and market segmentation. Product, Price, Promotion and Channel management.
Human resources management : HR functions. HR planning – job analysis, recruitment and job evaluation, Training and development methods. Performance appraisal methods. Trade unions and collective bargaining.
Quantitative techniques: Sampling and sampling methods. Probability and probability distributions – Hypothesis testing. Parametric tests (Z, t-tests, and ANOVA) and non-parametric tests (Chi-square test).
IT and e-commerce : E-Commerce business models – Internet and web technologies. E- payment methods – e-cash, e-cheques, credit cards, smart cards, and debit cards.
- Microeconomic Analysis
Demand analysis – Marshallian, Hicksian and Revealed preference approaches; axiomatic approach Theory of Production and Costs Pricing and output under different forms of market structure; collusive and non-collusive oligopolies. Factor Pricing analysis. Elements of General Equilibrium analysis and new welfare economics.
2. Macroeconomic Analysis
National income accounting – basic concepts. methods of estimation. Determination of output and employment – Classical approach, Keynesian approach. Real balance effect – Patinkin and Pigou. Theories of inflation. Phillips Curve analysis. Business cycles – Models of Samuelson, Hicks and Kaldor. IS-LM Analysis – Relative roles of monetary and fiscal policies. Mundell-Fleming open economy model. Rational expectations; new classical / tenets.
3. Development and Growth
Development and Growth – Role of institutions.
Theories of growth and development – Models of growth of Joan Robinson and Kaldor; Technical Progress – Hicks, Harrod and learning by doing, production function approach to the determinants of growth ; Endogenous growth : role of education, research and knowledge – explanation of cross country differentials in economic development and growth.
Theories of development – Classical, Marx, Schumpeter and structural analysis of development
- Imperfect market paradigm, Lewis model of development, Ranis-Fei model, Dependency theory of development. Factors in economic development – natural resources, population, capital, human resource development – Measurement of development – Conventional, HDI and Quality of Life indices. Trade and development – trade as engine of growth, two-gap analysis, Prebisch, Singer and Myrdal views; gains from trade and LDCs.
4. Money and Banking
Definition and functions of money; empirical definition of money – monetary aggregates; monetarism; demand for money – Fisher, Cambridge, Keynesian, Friedman, Baumol and Tobin; supply of money – determinants; money multiplier. Role and functions of Central bank; NBFIs; instruments of monetary control; stabilization polices; monetary and interest rate targetting.
Social responsibility of banks; banking sector reforms, Basel I and II; deregulation, competition and efficiency; NPAs. Specialized financial and investment institutions.
5. Public Finance
Role of government in a mixed economy – allocation, distribution and stabilization. Private, public and merit goods. Theories of Social choice. Theories of taxation, types, incidence and effects. Theories of public expenditure – effects on savings, investment and growth Burden of public debt; Wagner and Peacock – Wiseman hypotheses. Union Finance – Trends in Revenue and Expenditure of the Government of India. State Finance – Trends in Revenue and Expenditure of the State Governments. Public Debt – Effects and Burden and Management of public debt. Government Budget – Forms of Budgeting, Zero based budgeting, Different Budget deficits. Fiscal Federalism – Horizontal and vertical imbalances; methods of fiscal adjustment.
6.International Trade and Finance
Theories of International Trade : Empirical verification and relevance. International Trade under Imperfect competition. Terms of Trade and Economic Growth – Secular Deterioration of Terms of Trade Hypothesis – a critical review. Equilibrium / disequilibrium in Balance of Payment
- Traditional, Absorption and monetary approaches to adjustment in Balance of Payments. Impact of Tariffs on Partial and general equilibrium analysis; Political economy of Non-Tariff Barriers. Theory of regionalism at Global level – Trade blocks – SAARC and ASEAN. Trade Policy and Reforms in India. Optimum currency areas – Euro – ERM
7. Indian Economy :
Basic features of Indian economy; growth and structural changes – composition and trends in National Income.
Demography – Demographic features; demographic transition and demographic dividend; rural urban migration and rural urban divide.
Planning : Objectives and strategies of planning; and achievements of programmes for poverty alleviation and regional imbalances.
Agriculture : Land reforms and New Green Revolution – Role of technology; regional disparities in Indian agriculture; Pricing Policy; Food subsidy and Public distribution system.
Industry : Industrial growth and Productivity – New industrial policy; Privatisation, Disinvestment –
FDI and role of MNCs. SMEs and industrial development.
Public Finance : Composition and growth of public expenditure and debt; Fiscal reforms and rationalization of subsidies; Centre – State financial relations.
WTO and its impact on Indian economy; Energy and Environment: Energy Security; Environmental Policy of Government of India, Rationale of Social Forestry.
8.QUANTITATIVE METHODS :
- Statistical Methods
Measures of Central tendency, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis
Fundamentals of probability – Binomial, Poisson and Normal distributions. Simple correlation and regression analysis
Statistical inferences – Applications, sampling distributions ( t, Chi-square and F tests),
Sampling of attributes, testing of hypothesis Index numbers and time series analysis Sampling and census methods, types of sampling and errors.
b. Econometric Methods :
- Single Equation Linear Model : Assumption and properties of OLS
Multiple Regression Model – Estimation and Interpretation
Multi-collinearity, auto-correlation and heteroscedasticity – Causes, detection, consequences and remedy.
Dummy variables, distributed lags – need, limitations and interpretation Applications in economics.
- Simultaneous Equation Models :
Structural and reduced forms, Endogenous and exogenous variables, Identification problems and conditions.
Single equation methods of estimations – two stage least squares, indirect least squares, and least variance ratio.
c.Time Series Models
Auto-regressive (AR), moving average (MA) and mixed processes (ARMA, ARIMA) Concepts of unit root, integration and cointegration, random walks.
d. Mathematical Methods
- Principles of optimization : maxima and minima of functions of a single
- Basic concepts of Game Theory – Two-person, Zero-sum Game, Pure and Mixed strategy, Saddle point solution, Linear programming and input output analysis.
Common Syllabus: Public Policy and Research Methodology
- (A) Public Policy
- Nature, Scope and Importance of Public Policy, Public Policy as a Policy
- Theories / Models : Systems, Structural – Functional Incremental, Elite,
Group, Rational Comprehensive.
- Public Policy Making: Legislature, Executive Judiciary, Bureaucracy,
Political Parties, Pressure Groups, NGOs
- Policy Evaluation & Impact:
I. (B) Research Methodology
- Methods of Enquiry: Traditional and Scientific Methods,
Objectivity in Social Science Research
- Types of Research Design
- Methods of Data Collection: Library, Interview, Observation
- Data Processing, Report
II. Public Administration
- Definition, Meaning, Nature, Scope and Importance of Public Administration
- Evolution of Public Administration Theories: Classical, Human Relations and
- Union Government: President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers,
- State Government: Governor, Chief Minister and Council of Ministers,
State Legislative, Judiciary (High Court and Subordinate Court)
- Local Government: Panchayati Raj Institutions, Gram Panchayat,
Mandal Parishad, Zilla Parishad
- Impact of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments on Panchayati Raj Institutions
- Definition, Meaning, Nature, Scope and Importance of Political Science
- State : Essential Elements : Theories of Origin of State
- Sphere of State Activity : Laissez Fair, Welfare, Fascist, Anarchist, Socialist, Marxist
- Basic Concepts : Law, Liberty, Equality, Justice and Rights
- Forms of Government : Unitary, Federal, Presidential and Parliamentary
- Theory of Separation of Powers
- India’s Foreign Policy – Determinants and Features, Non-Alignment and N.O.
Ancient India :
- Pre and protohistoric background – Stone ages and Chalcolithic
- Harappan Civilization – Exten, major cities, characteristic features, social and economic conditions, script, religious practices, causes for the
- Iron Age – Aryan migration – Second
- Vedic Age : Importance literature, Political, Social and economic conditions in the early and later vedic
- India in the 6th century B.C. : Political, Social and economic conditions, Rise and spread of Jainism and
- Mauryan Age : Political history of the Mauryans, Ashoka, Mauryan Administration, social and economic conditions, decline of the Mauryan empire.
- The Satavahanas : Political history, administration, contribution to the
- Gupta Period : Political history, administration, social and economic conditions, growth of culture, decline of the
- India in the 7th century A.D. : Harsha Vardhana, Pallavas and Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas their political history and their contribution to Medieval India:
- India between 650 and 1200 A.D. – Political, social and economic conditions, Chola administration and
- Age of the Delhi Sultanate : (1206-1526), Political history, Military and Administrative organisation, changes in society and economy, Bhakti movement.
- The Vijayanagar Empire : Origin, History, Krishnadevaraya, social and economic conditions, contribution to art and architecture,
- Mughal Age (1556-1707) : Political history, Akbar, Administration, Social and economic conditions, culture, decline of the Mauryan empire, Marattas and Shivaji.
Modern India (1757-1947) :
- Historical forces and factors which led to the establishment of the British power in India – Early resistance to the British power in India – Hyder Ali, Tippu Sultan, causes for their
- Evolution of British paramountacy in India : Policies of Wellesley and Dalhousie –Economic policies of the British.
- Socio-religious reform movements – Rajaram Mohan Roy, Dayananda Saraswathi and others – Educational policies of the British and their impact on Indian
- Revolt of 1857: Causes, results,
- Rise and growth of the Indian National Movement : Birth of the Indian National Congress, the national movement from 1885 to 1905; movement from 1905 to 1920. Role of Tilak and Annie Besant :The movement from 1920 to 1947 ; Emergence of Gandhi; Non-cooperation movement, Salt Satyagraha and the Quit India Freedom movement in Andhra Pradesh with special reference to the role of Alluri Sitarama Raju and Tanguturi Prakasam, Revolt against the nizam’s rule in Telangana.
Modern World :
- Industrial Revolution – Significance and
- American War of Independence – course, results,
- French Revolution – course, effects,
- National liberation movements in Italy and Germany in the 19th century –
Mazzini, Cavour, Garibaldi, Bismarck.
- World War-I – Causes and
- The Russian Revolution of 1917 – Causes, results and
- The World between the two world wars – Nazism in Germany, Fascism in Italy, Turkey under Mustafa Kamal
- Developments in China 1911-1949 – Nationalist Revolution of 1911 – Communist Revolution of
- World War-II – Causes and effects.